Many of you have heard of Schrodinger's cat, one of the strangest experiments in physics.
If we put a cat in a closed box with a nuclear nucleus and a poison gas facility, the nucleus has a 50% chance of decaying, and when it decays, it releases a particle that will trigger the gas facility and poison the cat.
But if the nucleus hadn't decayed, if the gas hadn't been triggered, the cat wouldn't have been killed, so in this state, as long as we didn't open the box, the cat would be in a superposition of being both alive and dead 39bet-kết quả bóng đá-kết quả xổ số miền bắc-kèo bóng đá -soi cầu bóng đá-đặt cược.
This is the strange quantum mechanics, in which the quantum entanglement is said to be 10,000 times faster than the speed of light, the fastest speed in the universe. How can quantum mechanics break it?
Why does double-slit interference, a famous experiment in quantum mechanics, shock physicists' worldviews, and what does it tell us?
When it comes to quantum mechanics, the famous double-slit interference experiment is not so much spooky as inexplicable.
The original intention of the double-slit interference experiment is very simple, is to see whether the light is a wave or a particle. The experimental principle is very easy to understand. We put a light emitter in front of two parallel slits, let the photons through the two slits, and then placed a background plate.
If the light is a particle, the light hits the background plate with two stripes corresponding to the slit. If it is a wave, the light and dark stripes will eventually appear like water waves.
When scientists first discovered that even single photons had interference fringes, proof that light is a wave, they wanted to know how a single electron could get through the slit, so they put a detector in the back to see which slit the electron passed through.
But a strange thing happened. When the scientists looked at the photons in detail, the light turned back into particles, forming two stripes on the background, as if the light knew you were looking at it and gave you a specific path.
Represented by Bohr, Heisenberg Copenhagen school tries to explain the phenomenon, and called superposition state, namely, volatility and particles will be added together, in addition to spin, polarization, location, and other physical properties, as long as you don't measure it, it has been in various kinds of superposition, each individual particle has superposition.
To make it easier to understand, let's take a golf ball, and when no one is looking at it, the golf ball can be black and white and all kinds of things stacked together, there's no specific color, it can be both in motion and at rest, and so on and so forth.
But once we look at it and measure it, it has a specific color and a specific motion.
On this basis, imagine that if two particles are put together and have some kind of relationship, are the superpositions of the two particles independent of each other or will they intertwine and influence each other?
The answers are intertwined.
So if one particle splits into two, will the superposition of the two particles intertwine?
The answer is yes.
Even if two particles have some common relationship at the beginning, their superposition state will still be entangled even if they are far away from each other. Quantum entanglement is a specific manifestation of superposition state entanglement, which can span space and time.
Across space is easy to understand, that is, they even millions of light years apart, also will continue to entwine each other. Across time, refers to the two particles interacting with each other is happening at the same time, if two particles separated the 3 million light-years away, one of the particle impact on another particle, another particles don't change after 3 million, but will also change.
It's almost impossible to say that it's superluminal in terms of instant, instant, because the reciprocal particles of two particles happen at the same time, and there's no concept of time or velocity.
So how does this simultaneity across time happen?
Einstein believed that if two particles want to interact with each other, they must be inseparable from the medium propagating in the middle, but in fact, the speed of any medium can not exceed the speed of light, that is, any event can not affect the events in another region in the form of the speed of light, which is the famous regional realism.
In defense of his theory, Einstein suggested that there might be an undiscovered mechanism of action between the two particles, which he called hidden variables. In 1935, Einstein, together with Podolski and Rosen, published "Can Quantum Mechanics be Considered a complete description of physical Reality?" The authors' initials are E, R, and P, and the paper is known as the ERP paradox.
In 1694, John D. Bell designed an experiment to test the ERP paradox. He could measure the probability of the spin state distribution of entangled particles by changing the angle of an inhomogeneous magnetic field. If the two showed a corresponding linear relationship, then there would be hidden variables. Einstein was right, and vice versa.
Scientists have done a large number of Bell experiments in half a century. The results prove that there is no so-called hidden variable of quantum entanglement, although Einstein's theory is not established, but this also proves in the opposite direction that the particle action does not spread through the medium, that is to say, there is no medium faster than light speed, quantum entanglement still does not violate the theory of relativity.
To really understand the principle of quantum entanglement, perhaps we should not apply traditional physical concepts, because in the quantum world, everything is fuzzy, only probability exists, quantum entanglement is also a kind of fuzzy superposition state, in fact, in quantum mechanics, particles with the same superposition state are actually the same particle.
For example, we take atoms for granted as a whole, but when magnified infinitely, there are big gaps in the atom. The nucleus is like a walnut in a theater, only the distance is too small for humans to think of them as a whole.
Similarly, the gap can also be large or small. For humans, small gap for atoms can be very large, then for entangled particles, the distance between them can also be very small. If the distance between two entangled particles is 0.00001 nanometers, we take it for granted that they are so a whole.
But if you go a few light years or a few hundred light years away, we're less likely to accept the interaction between the two particles, because we don't think of it as a whole.
In the traditional theoretical framework, only elementary particles can be considered as an inseparable whole. How can two particles be considered as a whole when they are so large?
So some scientists think that maybe these two particles are actually the embodiment of the same particle in a higher dimensional space. At present, multidimensional quantized space is possible, so high dimensional space may be a reliable theory to explain quantum entanglement.